1. Be able to provide a definition of industrialization.
2. Explain the origins of industrialization.
3. Why did the Industrial Revolution not start first in Asia?
4. Why did the Industrial Revolution happen in England first? What factors were present in England that led to the industrialization of that country?
5. Why did industrialization not occur as early in France?
6. How did the Industrial Revolution transform European society?
7. Explain how the middle and laboring classes benefited from industrialization. What were the negative consequences for these two groups?
Echoes of Revolution
Abolition of Slavery
1. What accounts for the end of Atlantic slavery during the nineteenth century? Be sure to explain the influence of both events and ideas on the abolition of slavery.
2. Why did slavery continue to persist in some areas longer than in others?
3. How did the end of slavery affect the lives of the former slaves? What effect did it have on agriculture in areas where slavery had existed?
1. What is nationalism?
2. What accounts for the growth of nationalism as a powerful political and personal identity in the nineteenth century?
3. What changes in Europe came about because of nationalism?
1. What were the achievements and limitations of nineteenth-century feminism?
2. Why did women in Europe and America develop a feminist consciousness?
3. Why was suffrage such an important issue for the feminist movement?
Comparing the Atlantic Revolutions
1. What is a revolution? What are some characteristics of a revolution?
2. What important changes to society would come out of the Atlantic Revolutions?
3. How did the Atlantic Revolutions influence each other? How did the Enlightenment play a role in the revolutions?
1. In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics?
2. What explains the furor which erupted during the Wars of Religion? Can you think of any issues in American society today that could lead to such a reaction?
3. Why were women drawn to the Protestant Reformation? Were their expectations met? In what ways did the Reformation negatively affect women?
4. What role did the printing press play in the Protestant Reformation?
5. Why were missionary efforts to spread Christianity so much less successful in China than in Spanish America?
1. In what ways did the Catholic Church aim to counter the appeal of the Reformation?
2. Why did the Protestant Reformation appeal to women?
3. How did women participate in the Counter Reformation?
4. What reforms did the papacy enact in response to the Protestant Reformation?
5. Consider how the changes brought about by the Reformation influenced the Scientific Revolution.
6. Be prepared to explain the conflict that surrounded the scientific advances that were made during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Spread of Christianity
1. How was European imperial expansion related to the spread of Christianity?
2. What accounts for the success of the Spanish in spreading Christianity in American and the Philippines?
3. In what ways was European Christianity assimilated into the Native American cultures of Spanish America?
4. Why did it make sense to the natives in Spanish America for them to accept the religion of their conquerors?
5. How did native religious traditions persist? What did the Europeans do to get rid of these traditional practices?
6. Why were missionary efforts to spread Christianity so much less successful in China than in Spanish America?
Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions
1. How did the slave trade influence the spread of Christianity? And how did the African cultures affect religions in the New World?
2. What accounts for the continued spread of Islam in the early modern era and for the emergence of reform or renewal movements within the Islamic world?
3. What problems did the spread of Islam present to orthodox Muslims? How did these “problems” lead to changes within Islam?
4. Why did the Ming & Qing Dynasties promote Neo-Confucianism?
5. Explain the debate over Neo-Confucianism that developed during the early modern era.
6. In what ways did Asian cultural changes in the Early Modern era parallel those of Europe, and in what ways were they different?
7. Explain how the blending of Islam and Hinduism created cultural changes in India.
8. How did changes in Hinduism in India affect women?
1. Define what the Scientific Revolution was in one phrase.
2. What was the long-term significance of the Scientific Revolution?
3. Why did the Scientific Revolution occur in Europe rather than in China or the Islamic World? Why would the Islamic world and China have been good candidates for leadership in the Scientific Revolution and why did they not take leadership roles?
4.What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?
5. Explain the significance of the following:
Nicolaus Copernicus Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei
Blaise Pascal Sir Isaac Newton Giordano Bruno
Andreas Vesalius Paracelsus Rene Descartes
The Slave Trade in Context
Read pp.450-452 and answer the following questions in your notebook:
♦What were the different forms that slavery took?
♦What was distinctive about the Atlantic slave trade? What did it share with other patterns of slave owning and slave trading?
♦What explains the rise of the Atlantic slave trade?
♦Why was the Atlantic slave trade targeted toward trade in Africans?
The Slave Trade in Practice
Read pp. 452-455 and answer the following questions in your notebook:
♦What roles did Europeans and Africans play in the unfolding of the Atlantic slave trade?
♦How did the Atlantic slave trade change over time?♦What was the source of slaves for the slave trade? What was the destination of the slaves who were transported as part of the Atlantic slave trade?
Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade
Read pp. 455-457 and answer the following question in your notebook:
♦In what different ways did the Atlantic slave trade transform African societies? (What were the results of the slave trade for the African societies?)
Big Picture Questions:
♦How should we distribute the moral responsibility or blame for the Atlantic slave trade? Is this a task appropriate to historians?
♦What lasting legacies of early modern globalization are evident in the early twenty-first century? Pay particular attention to the legacies of the slave trade.
Indian Ocean commercial network “silver drain”
trading post empires Potosi
Spanish Philippines “soft gold”
British/Dutch East India Companies African diaspora
Tokugawa shogunate Benin/Dahomey
General chapter questions:
1) What was gained and what was lost in the transformations born of global commerce?
2) How can historians reconstruct the past by tracing the exchange of particular commodities (such as silver)?
Europeans and Asian Commerce
In your notebooks answer the following questions based on the chapter reading.
We will discuss these in class
1) What drove European involvement in the world of Asian commerce?
2) Why did Europeans decide that the Mediterranean trade route to Asia was inadequate?
3) Why might the Asians have considered European goods to be crude?
1) What role did Vasco da Gama play in Portugal’s entrance into the Asian commercial markets? What did the Portuguese discover once they made their way into the trading routes in the Indian Ocean?
3) What advantage did the Portuguese have over the small-scale merchants who were trading in the Indian Ocean in the late 15th and early 16th centuries?4) Why might the Portuguese have wanted to only create a trading post empire instead of a territorial empire?
5) How did the Portuguese attempt to maintain control over their trading post empire?
6) To what extent did the Portuguese realize their own goals in the Indian Ocean?
7) The Portuguese king saw these trading opportunities as a means of person self-enrichment. How did the Portuguese efforts to create a trading post empire benefit regular Portuguese?
8) When the Portuguese realized that they would not be able to dominate the Asian trade networks by force, how did they attempt to at least maintain a presence there?
Spain & the Philippines
1) Who was responsible for making the Spanish aware of the area of the Philippines as potential strategic foothold in the Pacific?
2) What conditions led the Spanish to set up direct rule over the Philippines rather than a trading post empire?
3) How did religion play a role in the Spanish conquest/control of the area and of the area surrounding the Philippines?
4) What changes did the Spanish rule bring about within the Philippines?
Asian Commerce1. Why might historians have exaggerated the impact of European societies on Asian society?
2. Explain how the attitude of the Japanese toward the Europeans changed from the mid-sixteenth century to the early seventeenth century.3. In spite of the dominance of European navies in Asian waters, in what way did the Chinese and other Asian peoples continue to have a presence in the area?
Silver and Global Commerce1. How did the silver trade begin?
2. What was the world historical importance of the silver trade?
3. What role did China play in the demand for silver?
4. What was the silver drain?
5. How did silver transform much that it touched?6. Spain and Japan both benefited from the discovery of silver in their territories. How did they both utilize their new-found wealth and which used the wealth more effectively?